THE INDEPENDENT VOTING SYSTEM
FAIR ELECTIONS
One man  one vote per candidate
The Independent Voting System is the only system of taking a vote that has all of the
following desirable properties:
 Every voter has exactly the same amount of power, regardless of his preferences.
 Voters are not split by multiple candidates with similar platforms.
 Voters who do not like any of the candidates are not disenfranchised.
 Voters who like more than one candidate are not disenfranchised.
 The system has no bias for or against any candidate.
 The number of candidates running does not matter.
 A candidate cannot affect the outcome of the election by entering or leaving the race, unless
he wins the election when in the race.
 Because of this, no signatures or petitions are necessary to get on the ballot.
 Because candidates can't hurt each other by running, no primary election is necessary.
 No runoff election is necessary, unless a tie occurs or no candidate gets a positive score.
 No recounts.
 Negative campaigning will end, because voting against one candidate doesn't automatically vote
for another.
 There is no such thing as an overvote or an undervote.
 Voters can always vote their consciences.
 Voters do not have to abandon their favorite candidates to prevent their worst choices from
being elected.
 The system can also be used for fair atlarge elections (although atlarge itself is not
fair).
 The system can also be used for fair referendum elections.
 The system can be used in a fair form of electoral voting (see below).
 The system can be used in a fair form of proportional representation voting (see below).
 The system can have a way to eliminate nonlegislative offices built into it.
 Independent Voting works equally well on any type of ballot: paper, machine, computer, or
marksense.
 Congress uses it for its internal votes (sort of).
 Independent Voting always chooses the choice that pleases the most voters.
 The Independent Voting System refutes Arrow's Theorem and the GibbardSatterthwait Theorem.
 Arrow's Theorem: "No voting system satisfies all fairness criteria.
The Independent Voting System does satisfy all reasonable fairness criteria because it does not use
ranking.
 The GibbardSatterthwait Theorem: "No voting system is immune to strategic (insincere)
voting.
Strategic voting is useless with Independent Voting because each choice is voted on independently.
 Note that the two above theorems assume that a ranking system is the most fair system. But
ranking systems are also unfair. Ranking is known to be a poor way to decide anything.
The Plurality, "first past the post", or "Vote for only one", election
system currently in use in most places has NONE of the desirable properties listed above.
Play with the various voting systems
Plurality 
vs 
Independent
HOW IT WORKS
THE REGULAR INDEPENDENT VOTING ELECTION
The Independent Voting System works in the following manner:
 Voter preliminaries:
 Anyone who will be legally eligible to vote on Election Day must register before
each election.
 The election board must photograph the voter.
 The election board checks the ID, photo, and residence of each voter.
 The election board mails the required photo voter card to each validly registered voter.
 The correct polling place, the election date, and the photo must be on the voter card.
 The voter must bring the registration card to the polls.
 Election officials must check the voter card photo against the voter's face.
 The card must be punched by election officials when the voter votes.
 No election card that is already punched can be used in a general election.
 No election card that is not punched for the main election and all previous runoffs can be used
in a runoff.
 More punch places are provided for each runoff. Each runoff election has another punch position.
 Ballot preliminaries:
 Anyone who will be legally eligible to hold the office on the day the term of office begins can
enter the race.
 There shall be no primary election.
 Anyone with interest can add a referendum, or add a choice to an existing referendum.
 The filing fee for a candidacy or referendum shall be less than a day's minimum wage.
 The filing deadline shall be one month before the election.
 There shall never be a requirement to gather a petition of signatures to get something on the
ballot.
 The Ballot
 Each candidate or referendum Choice has one ballot position.
 All ballot positions for any one office or referendum shall be grouped together on the ballot.
 Each ballot position has selectable entries for both YES and NO.
 If a voter makes no selection in a ballot position, or selects both YES and NO (on a paper ballot
or a twobutton machine), an ABSTAIN vote is recorded.
 ABSTAIN is the default vote if the voter does nothing for that Choice.
 There must be absolutely NO interlocking between one ballot position and another.
 No combination of voting selections is disallowed.
 Since more than one candidate from each party can run, there shall be no straightparty selection.
 The voter is allowed to make exactly the choices he wants.
 The tally:
 Each candidate or referendum Choice is hereafter referred to as a "Choice".
 Each Choice is scored independently with the following procedure:
 The YES votes for the Choice are counted. A voting machine can keep a running total.
 The NO votes for the Choice are counted. A voting machine can keep a running total.
 The number of NO votes is subtracted from the number of YES votes using integer arithmetic, producing the
Score for the Choice. If more NO votes than YES votes are counted, the Choice has a negative
Score. The voting machine can also keep a running total of this with incrementdecrement counters that can
handle negative numbers.
 The Scores of the Choices are entered into the tally board.
 All Choices with negative or zero Scores are removed from the election process at this point.
 The results:
 If one Choice has a unique highest positive Score, that Choice is elected.
 If more than one Choice has the same highest Score, the runoff procedure below is used among only the Choices
having that same high Score. This would be extremely rare.
 If no Choice has a positive Score:
 If the race is for a legislative, executive, or judicial office, the runoff procedure is used among an
entirely new slate of candidates.*
 If the race is for an administrative office, and at least one candidate had fewer NO votes than twice his
YES votes, the runoff procedure is used with an entirely new slate of candidates.*
 If the election is for an administrative office, and every candidate had more NO votes than twice his
YES votes, the office is abolished.
 If the election is a referendum, no change is made to the current law.
 If someone challenges the tally legally, the runoff procedure is held among all Choices with positive
Scores (instead of doing a recount). The one doing the challenge shall pay for it.
 If proof of voter or official election fraud or a ballot printing or programming error is demonstrated,
all tallies of all candidates in the affected races shall be kept secret, and a revote on just the affected
races shall be taken one week after the election.
 The runoff procedure (used only in case of a tie, a tally challenge, no positive scores, or ballot error):
 No Choice that received a negative or zero Score can be a Choice in any runoff, unless a ballot error
existed.
 The runoff election is exactly 2 weeks after the original election.
 If evidence of fraud was discovered, any party may post extra inspectors who look for fraud.
 The same procedure for balloting, tallying, and evaluating the results is used, except:
 The voter card must be already punched for the main election and any previous runoffs, or the voter
shall not vote in the runoff. No voter may join the process at the runoff stage.
 In a legislative, executive, or judicial race, the runoff procedure is repeated every two weeks until
someone wins the election.
 An administrative office is abolished if no positive Scores occur in the runoff, regardless of
whether any candidate had fewer NO votes than twice his YES votes.
 No challenge may be filed on the results of a runoff unless proof of fraud is shown.
* = It is obvious that no majority wanted any of the current candidates.
Play with the various voting systems
SAMPLE BALLOT
Party 
President 
Senator 
Representative 
Governor 
Commissioner 
Clerk 
Demican 
Joe Bammick [] YES [] NO 
Robert Spendy [] YES [] NO 
Ted Spendy [] YES [] NO 
(no candidate) . . 
Paula Ordenalfabetix [] YES [] NO 
Obama Bin Ladle [] YES [] NO 
Demican 
John Spendy [] YES [] NO 





Republicrat 
Shel Stugis [] YES [] NO 
Prin Walker [] YES [] NO 
Toob Addly [] YES [] NO 
Ferd Gnagy [] YES [] NO 
Paula Punt [] YES [] NO 
Rolf Hosnjer [] YES [] NO 
Republicrat 

Wynn Starr [] YES [] NO 

Feeny Shoop [] YES [] NO 


Libertariat 
Doo Watt [] YES [] NO 
(no candidate) . . 
Spoo Oopsy [] YES [] NO 
Kellie Tee [] YES [] NO 
(no candidate) . . 
Loofah Lirpai [] YES [] NO 
Greed 
Joe Greener [] YES [] NO 
Blim Farkas [] YES [] NO 
(no candidate) . . 
Pi Tausser [] YES [] NO 
(no candidate) . . 
Kruh Mei [] YES [] NO 
(independents) 
Joe Botulist [] YES [] NO 
Sal Speedy [] YES [] NO 
Tue Phat [] YES [] NO 



The above ballot is marksense, but the Independent Voting System will work with
most voting equipment. This includes paper ballots, lever machines, electronic machines,
touch screen, and punch card. Notice that you can vote for or against more than
one candidate, and that parties can run more than one candidate.
Independent voting is designed to choose, among all possible outcomes, the
outcome that pleases the largest number of voters.
The Independent Voting System is well worth adopting. It will
provide a better selection based on public opinion than any of the current systems
do.
See the special procedures for atlarge elections, electoral elections,
proportional elections, and numeric elections farther down this page.
LINKS:
SPECIAL INDEPENDENT VOTING SYSTEM PROCEDURES:
SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR ATLARGE ELECTIONS
In atlarge elections, usually used to select governing board members, the
following procedure is used instead:
 Use the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
 If the office has n seats, indicate that on the ballot. But the voter is not restricted to voting for n
choices.
 The n choices with the highest positive scores are elected.
 If fewer than n choices have positive scores, use the regular runoff process above, but make sure that enough
choices are on the ballot, and elect only enough choices to fill the remaining empty positions.
Consideration should be made for proportional representation instead of atlarge representation. Proportional
representation usually fits public opinion better.
SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR ELECTORAL ELECTIONS
In electoral elections, usually used to select the executive of the government, the following procedure is
used instead:
 The election ballot is made and conducted in exactly the same way as in a Regular Independent Voting System
election.
 Sets of YES and NO counters for the votes for each Choice are made for:
 Each precinct,
 Each representative district for the level of government the electoral election is for
 Each senatorial district for the level of government the electoral election is for
 The Electoral Votes themselves
Note that the votes counted in each representative and senatorial district are votes for the electoral
office, not votes for the representative or senator. The districts are used to tell which tally the votes
count for.
All of these counters are set to zero at the start of the tally process.
 When the YES and NO counts are taken for each precinct, they are taken in the same manner as the counts
of the Regular Independent Voting System election. But no Scores are calculated yet. The counts are entered
into the Precinct counters.
 The YES and NO count results for each Choice in each precinct are added to the counters made for the
legislative representative district serving that precinct.
 The same precinct results are also added to each set of counters made for each senatorial district serving
that precinct.
 The tallies for each representative district shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done
for the Regular Independent Voting System election above. But do not eliminate Choices with negative or zero
Scores at this time.
 Turn the representative district Scores into Electoral Votes:
 A YES Electoral Vote for the Choice if the Score is positive
 A NO Electoral Vote for the Choice if the Score is negative
 An ABSTAIN Electoral Vote for the Choice if the tally is zero
 Sum the Electoral Votes so produced into the Electoral Vote counters.
 The tallies for each senate district shall now be scored. Find the Scores for each senate district.
 Find the Limit by counting the number of senators in the district.
 The number of senate Electoral Votes allowed shall be the Limit.
 For each Choice, find the Score Magnitude by finding the Absolute Value of the Score.
 For each Choice, find the Quotient by dividing the Score Magnitude by 50, using integer division. Discard the
remainder of that division.
 For each Choice, find the Difference by subtracting the Quotient from the Limit.
 For each Choice, turn the resulting Quotient into Electoral Votes:
 If the Score is positive and the Quotient is greater than or equal to the Limit, a number of YES Electoral
Votes equal to the Limit shall be entered into the counters for the Choice.
 If the Score is positive and the Quotient is less than the Limit, a number of YES Electoral Votes equal to the
Quotient shall be entered into the counters for the Choice. A number of ABSTAIN Electoral Votes equal to the
Difference shall be entered into the counters for the Choice.
 If the Score is negative and the Quotient is greater than or equal to the Limit, a number of NO Electoral
Votes equal to the Limit shall be entered into the counters for the Choice.
 If the Score is negative and the Quotient is less than the Limit, a number of NO Electoral Votes equal to the
Quotient shall be entered into the counters for the Choice. A number of ABSTAIN Electoral Votes equal to the
Difference shall be entered into the counters for the Choice.
 If either the Score is zero or the Quotient is zero, A number of ABSTAIN Electoral Votes equal to the Limit
shall be entered into the counters for the Choice.
 The Electoral Votes for each candidate shall be scored just like regular votes in the Regular Independent
Voting System election above.
 The winner is now computed as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above, using the tallies
from the Electoral Votes.
 The runoff procedure is the same as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above, except that
nobody may challenge a precinct tally unless it can affect the winner of the electoral tallies by
itself.
WinnerTakeAll electoral voting in a state or other district is unfair, and is not allowed.
SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION ELECTIONS
Proportional representation is based on allocating the number of representatives
or votes in the governing body to be proportional to the number of votes each
political party or Choice receives. The Independent Voting System is modified
slightly to fill a proportionally represented governing body as follows:
 The election ballot is made and conducted in exactly the same way as in a
Regular Independent Voting System election.
 The tallies shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done for
the Regular Independent Voting System election above. But do not eliminate Choices
with negative or zero Scores in this process.
 Instead, remove all Choices that received no YES votes.
 Find the remaining Choice with the most negative score. Add this number to all
of the Choices' scores to find their Partial Numbers.
 Find the sum of all of the Partial Numbers.
 Divide the sum of the Partial Numbers so found by the number of votes in the
chamber to get the Reduction Ratio.
 For each Choice, divide its Partial Number by the Reduction Ratio, giving the
Selection Number for that Choice.
 Round each Selection Number to the nearest integer, giving the Index Number. But
if any Choice receives zero as an Index Number, replace it with a one.
 Find the sum of the index numbers.
 If the sum of the Index Numbers does not now equal the number of votes in
the chamber, adjust the sum in the correct direction by changing the rounding of the
Index Numbers of the Choices with Selection Numbers closest to the .5 rounding
point. But again, such changes must not produce an Index Number of Zero.
 Make a table as follows:
In this example, the body has 6 seats and 104 votes. 
Demicans 39 
Republicrats 30 
Libertariats 26 
Greeds 9 
Squatcho 26  Stubbery 12  Pudloo 11  Greedo 9 
Dunbury 13  Ritlo 8  Libraitiss 8 

 Reblicto 6  Triatsun 7 

 Publicus 4 



A. Give each Political Party one column.
B. Arrange the Choices into the columns under their Political Parties, one per row.
C. Put each Index Number with its Choice.

D. Sum the Index numbers for each party. Put the sum next to the party name to be put with the Parties
E. Sort each column's rows according to the Index numbers of the Choices, with the greater numbers at
the top.
F. Sort the columns according to the sums of the Index Numbers of the Parties, with the greater numbers
on the left.
Note: If several parties have the same sum of Index Numbers, Sort that subgroup of parties according to the
highest candidate Index Number found within each Party.

 Going across, row by row, from left to right, and from top down, count off the number of seats in the
legislative body. Seat the Choices counted off. Skip any empty cells when counting, so each count has a Choice
attached to it.
 Divide the remaining Index Numbers into units, and distribute the units in each column equally among the
seated candidates there:
G. Count off, left to right, and going down by rows, the 6 seats in the body.
H. Throw out the remaining candidates.
I. Evenly distribute the remaining units in the column, distributing the ones that won't evenly divide
by starting at the top.

Demicans 39 
Republicrats 30 
Libertariats 26 
Greeds 9 
Squatcho 26  Stubbery 17  Pudloo 26  Greedo 9 
Dunbury 13  Ritlo 13 











 The next part can be done instead of step I if it is desired that candidates of the same party have the
same vote, instead of proportional votes:
J. Evenly distribute all of the units in the column, distributing the ones that won't evenly divide by
starting at the top.

Demicans 39 
Republicrats 30 
Libertariats 26 
Greeds 9 
Squatcho 20  Stubbery 15  Pudloo 26  Greedo 9 
Dunbury 19  Ritlo 15 











 If the number of Choices on the ballot is less than the number of seats, or the number of Choices receiving
YES votes is less than the number of seats, the remaining seats are filled in a runoff election with none of the
original Choices allowed to be on the ballot.
 If the number of seats is less than the number of Parties (columns), each unseated Political Party shall
choose which seated Choice or Choices to give all or parts of its Index Number units to.
If there were 3 seats instead of 6:


J. The unseated Political Party chose which seated Choice or Choices to give all or parts of its Index
Number units to.

Demicans 48 
Republicrats 30 
Libertariats 26 
Greeds 0 
Squatcho 48  Stubbery 30  Pudloo 26  9 given to Squatcho 













 The final Index Number of each Choice becomes the number of votes the Choice has as the seated
proportional representative.
An alternative to proportional representation is increasing the number of districts.
SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR ELECTIONS TO SET NUMERICAL VALUES
Numerical selection is based on finding the public's choice of a number, usually
for salaries or tax rates. The Independent Voting System is modified slightly to
find a number as follows:
 If the value to be found is a real value, at least 10 Values, evenly spaced, are placed on the ballot
in numerical order, with each Value being a Choice.
 If the value to be found is an integer value, the values to be selected among are placed on the ballot
in numerical order, with each Value being a Choice.
 This system shall not be used to set speed limits or other values that should be set by sound engineering
practice, not politics.
 Before the election, if any person objects to a Value not being included on the ballot, and the Value is
a legal one to be considered, the number and distribution of Values on the ballot shall be changed so that all
the original Values, the added Value, and sufficiently more Values to make all of the Values equally spaced, are
all on the ballot.
 The election is conducted in exactly the same way as in a Regular Independent Voting System election.
The voter votes Yes on all Values within the range he likes, No on all Values he will not accept, and abstains
on the rest.
 The tallies shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done for the Regular Independent
Voting System election above.
 The winner is computed as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
 If two real values next to each other tie as cowinners, the actual value shall be the average of the
two values.
 If a runoff election is indicated due to a lack of a positive Score, the list of numbers used in the
runoff shall be found by finding the midpoints between adjacent numbers, and then adding zero to the list.
 If the runoff fails to produce a winner, the result shall be as if the election never took place. Any tax
or new salaried position shall cease to exist. Any existing salary shall continue at the same rate. And any
proposed numerical limit placed on the public is repealed.
Also check the procedures for legislative votes for budgets below.
SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LEGISLATURE VOTES FOR BUDGETS
Two procedures for passing a budget in a legislature:
Note that, in each example case, the third item is voted down.
 Procedure One  Priority by importance of item:
 Sort the budget items in order of necessity`(most necessary first*)
 Vote on the items one at a time:
 Vote on the item using the Independent Voting System.
 If the item passes the vote, add it to the budget.
 Stop when the next item costs more than the amount of unappropriated money left.

Procedure One  Priority by importance of item 
Item #  Priority  Cost  YES  NO  Score 
Avail  Appropriated 
Before           
$20 M  $20 M 
1  1  $5 M  8  2  6 
$15 M  $5 M 
2  2  $5 M  7  2  5 
$10 M  $5 M 
3  3  $5 M  4  5  1 
$10 M  $0 
4  4  $8 M  7  2  5 
$2 M  $8 
5  5  $5 M  STOP  0 
$2 M  $0 
TOTAL    $18 M  OK 
$0  $18 

 Procedure Two  Priority by scores of items.
 Sort the budget items into two groups: essential and optional*
 Take an Independent Voting System vote on all of the essential budget items.
 If the vote spends more than the available budget, stop, and use the trimming procedure
below, otherwise continue, using the remaining unappropriated money as the available amount.
 Take an Independent Voting System vote on all of the optional budget items.
 If the vote spends more than the available amount, stop, and use the vote removal procedure
below, otherwise stop.

Procedure Two  Priority by scores  No cuts needed 
Item #  Priority  Cost  YES  NO  Score 
Trim Cost  Avail  Appropriated 
1  E1  $5 M  8  2  6 
$5 M  $20 M  $5 M 
2  E2  $5 M  7  2  5 
$5 M  $5 M 
3  E3  $5 M  4  5  1 
$0  $0 
SUBTOTAL    $10 M  OK 
New Score  $10 M   
4  O4  $5 M  7  2  5 
5  $10 M  $5 M 
5  O5  $5 M  6  3  3 
3  $5 M 
SUBTOTAL    $10 M  OK 
  $0   
TOTAL    $20 M  OK 
  $0  $20 M 

 Trimming Procedure:
 Find the total amount voted to be spent in this portion of the process.
 Divide the available budget by the amount voted to be spent, producing a fraction.
 Multiply all of the budgeted amounts by the fraction obtained above.
 This reduces appropriations on all of the essential items by the same percentage.
 None of the optional items shall be appropriated, since the money is gone.

Procedure Two  Priority by scores  Essentials trimmed 
Item #  Priority  Cost  YES  NO  Score 
Trim Cost  Avail  Appropriated 
1  E1  $5 M  8  2  6 
$4 M  $20 M  $4 M 
2  E2  $5 M  7  2  5 
$4 M  $4 M 
3  E3  $5 M  4  5  1 
$0  $0 
4  E4  $10 M  7  2  5 
$8 M  $8 M 
5  E5  $5 M  6  3  3 
$4 M  $4 M 
SUBTOTAL    $25 M  Multiply by 0.80 
  $20   
TOTAL    $20 M  OK 
  $0  $20 M 

 Vote Removal Procedure:
 Repeat the following:
 Find the optional item with the smallest score.
 Subtract that score from the scores of all of the optional budget items.
 Remove the appropriations of all of the items with zero or negative scores.
 Stop when the budget is not overspent.

Procedure Two  Priority by scores  Optional vote removed 
Item #  Priority  Cost  YES  NO  Score 
Trim Cost  Avail  Appropriated 
1  E1  $5 M  8  2  6 
$5 M  $20 M  $5 M 
2  E2  $5 M  7  2  5 
$5 M  $5 M 
3  E3  $5 M  4  5  1 
$0  $0 
SUBTOTAL    $15 M  OK 
New Score  $10 M   
4  O4  $10 M  7  2  5 
2  $10 M  $10 M 
5  O5  $5 M  6  3  3 
0  $0 
SUBTOTAL    $15 M  Lower by 3 
  $0   
TOTAL    $20 M  OK 
  $0  $20 M 

* The following must be considered as essential and necessary: police, fire, emergency
services, the military, crime investigation, justice, corrections, safety, sanitation,
legislation, executives, education, and emergency poor relief
* The following must be considered as not essential and unnecessary: the arts, sports,
entertainment, recreation, museums, monuments, memorials, statues, fancy architecture,
parks, trails, swimming pools, ice rinks, bicycle paths, and utility systems.
SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LEGISLATURE VOTES ON ALTERNATIVE PLANS
Use the following procedure:
 Enter each alternative into the vote as in an Independent Voting System election.
 Vote on each alternative using the Independent Voting System. Since the outcomes do not
affect each other, the votes can be taken simultaneously or sequentially.
 Score the votes after all of the votes have been taken.
 The highest positive score wins.
 If there is no positive, score, then no change shall be made.
This procedure must always be used if there is a disagreement on what to do.
LINKS: