Sample scenario: Three candidates are running for
mayor of a city of 100000 people. Two of them, A and B, favor Proposition X. Candidate C
opposes Proposition X. 60% of the population favors Proposition X and votes accordingly.
The remaining 40% opposes Proposition X and votes accordingly. 


Plurality Voting  A Pie Chart
 Votes are disjoint* to each other.
 Candidate's score is his vote total.
 Candidates compete for the same votes.
 Negative campaigning works to steal votes.
 Unfairly favors the most unique candidate.
 * Disjoint is the Finite Mathematics term for events that can't
happen together.
PLURALITY VOTING
PIE CHART IN FACE

Independent Voting  A Column Chart
 Votes are independent* to each other.
 Candidate's score is his YES minus his NO.
 Candidates get their own separate votes.
 Negative campaigning does not work.
 Does not unfairly favor any candidate.
 * Independent is the Finite Mathematics term for events that don't
affect each other.
INDEPENDENT VOTING
INDEPENDENT VOTING  FAIR

The sample scenario:
 The Proposition X vote is unfairly split among candidates A & B.
 Candidate C wins.
 Proposition X is unfairly defeated.
 The will of the people is thwarted

The sample scenario:
 The Proposition X vote is not split between candidates A and B.
 Candidate A wins.
 Proposition X is not defeated.
 The will of the people is preserved

Properties of plurality voting:
 Vote for only one candidate in each race.
 Unfairly favors the candidate most different from the others.
 Unfairly disfavors candidates similar to other candidates.
 Lets candidates steal votes from others with negative campaigns.
 Lets the press steal votes with negative stories and campaigns.
 Some candidate votes have more power than votes for others.
 Voters are split among multiple candidates with similar platforms.
 Voters who don't like any of the candidates are disenfranchised.
 Voters who like more than one candidate are disenfranchised.
 The system is biased for some candidates and against others.
 The system is biased when more than two candidates run.
 Candidates joining or leaving the race can change the outcome.*
 This is why signatures or petitions are needed to get on the ballot.
 * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.
 Usually chooses the candidate most different from the others.
 Candidates running can hurt each other, so primaries are necessary.
 Recounts are required when a tie or near tie occurs.
 No runoff election is allowed.
 Overvotes (voted for too many) disqualify ballots.
 Undervotes (didn't vote for any) are not counted.
 Voters are often kept from voting their consciences.
 Voters often have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.
 Is used for unfair atlarge elections.
 Can be used for fair yesno referendum elections.
 Is used in an unfair form of electoral voting.
 Is used in an unfair form of proportional representation voting.
 The system has no way to eliminate nonlegislative offices.
 Works on any ballot type: paper, machine, computer, or marksense.
 Congress uses it for multiplechoice votes.

Properties of independent voting:
 Vote for or against every candidate in each race.
 Fairly treats all candidates exactly the same. Has no bias.
 Allows voters to vote for all similar candidates.
 Candidates can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
 The press can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
 Each voter has exactly the same voting power.
 Voters are not split by multiple similar candidates.
 Voters who dislike all of the candidates aren't disenfranchised.
 Voters who like multiple candidates are not disenfranchised.
 The system has no bias for or against any candidate.
 The number of candidates running does not matter.
 Candidates joining or leaving the race can't change the outcome.*
 No signatures or petitions are necessary to get on the ballot.
 * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.
 Always chooses the choice that pleases the most voters.
 Candidates can't hurt each other, so primaries are unnecessary.
 No recounts are allowed.
 Runoffs occur if there is a tie (rare) or no positive score exists.
 There is no such thing as an overvote.
 There is no such thing as an undervote.
 Voters can always vote their consciences.
 Voters don't have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.
 Can be used for atlarge elections (but atlarge itself isn't fair).
 Can be used for fair referendum elections.
 Can be used in a fair form of electoral voting.
 Can be used in a fair form of proportional representation voting.
 Can have a way to eliminate nonlegislative offices built into it.
 Works on any ballot type: paper, machine, computer, or marksense.
 Congress uses it for its internal votes (sort of).

 Plurality Voting does not refute Arrow's Theorem.
Arrow's Theorem: "No voting system satisfies all fairness
criteria."
 Many fairness criteria are wrongly based on ranking, which itself
is unfair.


 Plurality Voting doesn't refute the GibbardSatterthwait Theorem.
GibbardSatterthwait Theorem: "No voting system is immune
to insincere voting."
 People vote so that their side, rather than their candidate, wins.
 People often vote to keep the worst candidate out.

