THE INDEPENDENT VOTING SYSTEM

FAIR ELECTIONS

One man - one vote per candidate

The Independent Voting System is the only system of taking a vote that has all of the following desirable properties: independent voting

  1. Every voter has exactly the same amount of power, regardless of his preferences.
  2. Voters are not split by multiple candidates with similar platforms.
  3. Voters who do not like any of the candidates are not disenfranchised.
  4. Voters who like more than one candidate are not disenfranchised.
  5. The system has no bias for or against any candidate.
  6. The number of candidates running does not matter.
  7. A candidate cannot affect the outcome of the election by entering or leaving the race, unless he wins the election when in the race.
  8. Because of this, no signatures or petitions are necessary to get on the ballot.
  9. Because candidates can't hurt each other by running, no primary election is necessary.
  10. No runoff election is necessary, unless a tie occurs or no candidate gets a positive score.
  11. No recounts.
  12. Negative campaigning will end, because voting against one candidate doesn't automatically vote for another.
  13. There is no such thing as an overvote or an undervote.
  14. Voters can always vote their consciences.
  15. Voters do not have to abandon their favorite candidates to prevent their worst choices from being elected.
  16. The system can also be used for fair at-large elections.
  17. The system can also be used for fair referendum elections.
  18. The system can be used in a fair form of electoral voting (see below).
  19. The system can be used in a fair form of proportional representation voting (see below).
  20. The system can have a way to eliminate nonlegislative offices built into it.
  21. Independent Voting works equally well on any type of ballot: paper, machine, computer, or mark-sense.
  22. Congress uses it for its internal votes (sort of).
  23. Independent Voting always chooses the choice that pleases the most voters.
  24. The Independent Voting System refutes Arrow's Theorem.
  25. The Independent Voting System refutes The Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem.

The Plurality, "first past the post", or "Vote for only one", election system currently in use in most places has NONE of the desirable properties listed above.

Play with the various voting systems

Plurality -- vs -- Independent


HOW IT WORKS


THE REGULAR INDEPENDENT VOTING ELECTION

The Independent Voting System works in the following manner:

  1. Voter preliminaries:
  2. Ballot preliminaries:
  3. The Ballot independent voting
  4. The tally:
  5. The results:
  6. The runoff procedure (used only in case of a tie, a tally challenge, no positive scores, or ballot error):

* = It is obvious that no majority wanted any of the current candidates.

Play with the various voting systems


SAMPLE BALLOT

Party President Senator Representative Governor Commissioner Clerk
Demican Joe Bammick
[] YES
[] NO
Robert Spendy
[] YES
[] NO
Ted Spendy
[] YES
[] NO
(no candidate)
.
.
Paula Ordenalfabetix
[] YES
[] NO
Obama Bin Ladle
[] YES
[] NO
Demican John Spendy
[] YES
[] NO





Republicrat Shel Stugis
[] YES
[] NO
Prin Walker
[] YES
[] NO
Toob Addly
[] YES
[] NO
Ferd Gnagy
[] YES
[] NO
Paula Punt
[] YES
[] NO
Rolf Hosnjer
[] YES
[] NO
Republicrat
Wynn Starr
[] YES
[] NO

Feeny Shoop
[] YES
[] NO


Libertariat Doo Watt
[] YES
[] NO
(no candidate)
.
.
Spoo Oopsy
[] YES
[] NO
Kellie Tee
[] YES
[] NO
(no candidate)
.
.
Loofah Lirpai
[] YES
[] NO
Greed Joe Greener
[] YES
[] NO
Blim Farkas
[] YES
[] NO
(no candidate)
.
.
Pi Tausser
[] YES
[] NO
(no candidate)
.
.
Kruh Mei
[] YES
[] NO
(independents) Joe Botulist
[] YES
[] NO
Sal Speedy
[] YES
[] NO
Tue Phat
[] YES
[] NO



The above ballot is mark-sense, but the system will work with most voting equipment. This includes paper ballots, lever machines, electronic machines, touch screen, and punch card. Notice that you can vote for or against more than one candidate, and that parties can run more than one candidate.


Independent voting is designed to choose, among all possible outcomes, the outcome that pleases the largest number of voters.

The Independent Voting System is well worth adopting. It will provide a better selection based on public opinion than any of the current systems do.

See the special procedures for at-large elections, electoral elections, proportional elections, and numeric elections farther down this page.


LINKS:



SPECIAL INDEPENDENT VOTING SYSTEM PROCEDURES:


SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR AT-LARGE ELECTIONS

In at-large elections, usually used to select governing board members, the following procedure is used instead:

  1. Use the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
  2. If the office has n seats, indicate that on the ballot. But the voter is not restricted to voting for n choices.
  3. The n choices with the highest positive scores are elected.
  4. If fewer than n choices have positive scores, use the regular runoff process above, but make sure that enough choices are on the ballot, and elect only enough choices to fill the remaining empty positions.

Consideration should be made for proportional representation instead of at-large representation. Proportional representation usually fits public opinion better.


SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR ELECTORAL ELECTIONS

In electoral elections, usually used to select the executive of the government, the following procedure is used instead:

  1. The election ballot is made and conducted in exactly the same way as in a Regular Independent Voting System election.
  2. Sets of YES and NO counters for the votes for each Choice are made for:

    Note that the votes counted in each representative and senatorial district are votes for the electoral office, not votes for the representative or senator. The districts are used to tell which tally the votes count for.

    All of these counters are set to zero at the start of the tally process.

  3. When the YES and NO counts are taken for each precinct, they are taken in the same manner as the counts of the Regular Independent Voting System election. But no Scores are calculated yet. The counts are entered into the Precinct counters.
  4. The YES and NO count results for each Choice in each precinct are added to the counters made for the legislative representative district serving that precinct.
  5. The same precinct results are also added to each set of counters made for each senatorial district serving that precinct.
  6. The tallies for each representative district shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done for the Regular Independent Voting System election above. But do not eliminate Choices with negative or zero Scores at this time.
  7. Turn the representative district Scores into Electoral Votes:
  8. Sum the Electoral Votes so produced into the Electoral Vote counters.
  9. The tallies for each senate district shall now be scored. Find the Scores for each senate district.
  10. Find the Limit by counting the number of senators in the district.
  11. The number of senate Electoral Votes allowed shall be the Limit.
  12. For each Choice, find the Score Magnitude by finding the Absolute Value of the Score.
  13. For each Choice, find the Quotient by dividing the Score Magnitude by 50, using integer division. Discard the remainder of that division.
  14. For each Choice, find the Difference by subtracting the Quotient from the Limit.
  15. For each Choice, turn the resulting Quotient into Electoral Votes:
  16. The Electoral Votes for each candidate shall be scored just like regular votes in the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
  17. The winner is now computed as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above, using the tallies from the Electoral Votes.
  18. The runoff procedure is the same as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above, except that nobody may challenge a precinct tally unless it can affect the winner of the electoral tallies by itself.

Winner-Take-All electoral voting in a state or other district is unfair, and is not allowed.


SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION ELECTIONS

Proportional representation is based on allocating the number of representatives or votes in the governing body to be proportional to the number of votes each political party or Choice receives. The Independent Voting System is modified slightly to fill a proportionally represented governing body as follows:

  1. The election ballot is made and conducted in exactly the same way as in a Regular Independent Voting System election.
  2. The tallies shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done for the Regular Independent Voting System election above. But do not eliminate Choices with negative or zero Scores in this process.
  3. Instead, remove all Choices that received no YES votes.
  4. Find the remaining Choice with the most negative score. Add this number to all of the Choices' scores to find their Partial Numbers.
  5. Find the sum of all of the Partial Numbers.
  6. Divide the sum of the Partial Numbers so found by the number of votes in the chamber to get the Reduction Ratio.
  7. For each Choice, divide its Partial Number by the Reduction Ratio, giving the Selection Number for that Choice.
  8. Round each Selection Number to the nearest integer, giving the Index Number. But if any Choice receives zero as an Index Number, replace it with a one.
  9. Find the sum of the index numbers.
  10. If the sum of the Index Numbers does not now equal the number of votes in the chamber, adjust the sum in the correct direction by changing the rounding of the Index Numbers of the Choices with Selection Numbers closest to the .5 rounding point. But again, such changes must not produce an Index Number of Zero.
  11. Make a table as follows:

    In this example, the body has 6 seats and 104 votes.

    Demicans 39 Republicrats 30 Libertariats 26 Greeds 9
    Squatcho 26Stubbery 12Pudloo 11Greedo 9
    Dunbury 13Ritlo 8Libraitiss 8

    Reblicto 6Triatsun 7

    Publicus 4

    A. Give each Political Party one column.

    B. Arrange the Choices into the columns under their Political Parties, one per row.

    C. Put each Index Number with its Choice.

    D. Sum the Index numbers for each party. Put the sum next to the party name to be put with the Parties

    E. Sort each column's rows according to the Index numbers of the Choices, with the greater numbers at the top.

    F. Sort the columns according to the sums of the Index Numbers of the Parties, with the greater numbers on the left.

    Note: If several parties have the same sum of Index Numbers, Sort that subgroup of parties according to the highest candidate Index Number found within each Party.

  12. Going across, row by row, from left to right, and from top down, count off the number of seats in the legislative body. Seat the Choices counted off. Skip any empty cells when counting, so each count has a Choice attached to it.
  13. Divide the remaining Index Numbers into units, and distribute the units in each column equally among the seated candidates there:

    G. Count off, left to right, and going down by rows, the 6 seats in the body.

    H. Throw out the remaining candidates.

    I. Evenly distribute the remaining units in the column, distributing the ones that won't evenly divide by starting at the top.

    Demicans 39 Republicrats 30 Libertariats 26 Greeds 9
    Squatcho 26Stubbery 17Pudloo 26Greedo 9
    Dunbury 13Ritlo 13









  14. The next part can be done instead of step I if it is desired that candidates of the same party have the same vote, instead of proportional votes:

    J. Evenly distribute all of the units in the column, distributing the ones that won't evenly divide by starting at the top.

    Demicans 39 Republicrats 30 Libertariats 26 Greeds 9
    Squatcho 20Stubbery 15Pudloo 26Greedo 9
    Dunbury 19Ritlo 15









  15. If the number of Choices on the ballot is less than the number of seats, or the number of Choices receiving YES votes is less than the number of seats, the remaining seats are filled in a runoff election with none of the original Choices allowed to be on the ballot.
  16. If the number of seats is less than the number of Parties (columns), each unseated Political Party shall choose which seated Choice or Choices to give all or parts of its Index Number units to.

    If there were 3 seats instead of 6:


    J. The unseated Political Party chose which seated Choice or Choices to give all or parts of its Index Number units to.

    Demicans 48 Republicrats 30 Libertariats 26 Greeds 0
    Squatcho 48Stubbery 30Pudloo 269 given to Squatcho












  17. The final Index Number of each Choice becomes the number of votes the Choice has as the seated proportional representative.

An alternative to proportional representation is increasing the number of districts.


SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR ELECTIONS TO SET NUMERICAL VALUES

Numerical selection is based on finding the public's choice of a number, usually for salaries or tax rates. The Independent Voting System is modified slightly to find a number as follows:

  1. If the value to be found is a real value, at least 10 Values, evenly spaced, are placed on the ballot in numerical order, with each Value being a Choice.
  2. If the value to be found is an integer value, the values to be selected among are placed on the ballot in numerical order, with each Value being a Choice.
  3. This system shall not be used to set speed limits or other values that should be set by sound engineering practice, not politics.
  4. Before the election, if any person objects to a Value not being included on the ballot, and the Value is a legal one to be considered, the number and distribution of Values on the ballot shall be changed so that all the original Values, the added Value, and sufficiently more Values to make all of the Values equally spaced, are all on the ballot.
  5. The election is conducted in exactly the same way as in a Regular Independent Voting System election. The voter votes Yes on all Values within the range he likes, No on all Values he will not accept, and abstains on the rest.
  6. The tallies shall now be scored. Find the Score for each Choice as is done for the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
  7. The winner is computed as in the Regular Independent Voting System election above.
  8. If two real values next to each other tie as co-winners, the actual value shall be the average of the two values.
  9. If a runoff election is indicated due to a lack of a positive Score, the list of numbers used in the runoff shall be found by finding the midpoints between adjacent numbers, and then adding zero to the list.
  10. If the runoff fails to produce a winner, the result shall be as if the election never took place. Any tax or new salaried position shall cease to exist. Any existing salary shall continue at the same rate. And any proposed numerical limit placed on the public is repealed.

Also check the procedures for legislative votes for budgets below.


SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LEGISLATURE VOTES FOR BUDGETS

Two procedures for passing a budget in a legislature:

Note that, in each example case, the third item is voted down.

  • Procedure One - Priority by importance of item:
    1. Sort the budget items in order of necessity`(most necessary first*)
    2. Vote on the items one at a time:
      1. Vote on the item using the Independent Voting System.
      2. If the item passes the vote, add it to the budget.
    3. Stop when the next item costs more than the amount of unappropriated money left.
Procedure One - Priority by importance of item
Item #PriorityCostYESNOScore AvailAppropriated
Before----- $20 M$20 M
11$5 M826 $15 M$5 M
22$5 M725 $10 M$5 M
33$5 M45-1 $10 M$0
44$8 M725 $2 M$8
55$5 MSTOP0 $2 M$0
TOTAL-$18 MOK $0$18
  • Procedure Two - Priority by scores of items.
    1. Sort the budget items into two groups: essential and optional*
    2. Take an Independent Voting System vote on all of the essential budget items.
    3. If the vote spends more than the available budget, stop, and use the trimming procedure below, otherwise continue, using the remaining unapproproated money as the available amount.
    4. Take an Independent Voting System vote on all of the optional budget items.
    5. If the vote spends more than the available amount, stop, and use the vote removal procedure below, otherwise stop.
Procedure Two - Priority by scores - No cuts needed
Item #PriorityCostYESNOScore Trim CostAvailAppropriated
1E1$5 M826 $5 M$20 M$5 M
2E2$5 M725 $5 M$5 M
3E3$5 M45-1 $0$0
SUBTOTAL-$10 MOK New Score$10 M-
4O4$5 M725 5$10 M$5 M
5O5$5 M633 3$5 M
SUBTOTAL-$10 MOK -$0-
TOTAL-$20 MOK -$0$20 M
  • Trimming Procedure:
    1. Find the total amount voted to be spent in this portion of the process.
    2. Divide the available budget by the amount voted to be spent, producing a fraction.
    3. Multiply all of the budgeted amounts by the fraction obtained above.
    4. This reduces appropriations on all of the essential items by the same percentage.
    5. None of the optional items shall be appropriated, since the money is gone.
Procedure Two - Priority by scores - Essentials trimmed
Item #PriorityCostYESNOScore Trim CostAvailAppropriated
1E1$5 M826 $4 M$20 M$4 M
2E2$5 M725 $4 M$4 M
3E3$5 M45-1 $0$0
4E4$10 M725 $8 M$8 M
5E5$5 M633 $4 M$4 M
SUBTOTAL-$25 MMultiply by 0.80 -$20-
TOTAL-$20 MOK -$0$20 M
  • Vote Removal Procedure:
    1. Repeat the following:
      1. Find the optional item with the smallest score.
      2. Subtract that score from the scores of all of the optional budget items.
      3. Remove the appropriations of all of the items with zero or negative scores.
    2. Stop when the budget is not overspent.
Procedure Two - Priority by scores - Optional vote removed
Item #PriorityCostYESNOScore Trim CostAvailAppropriated
1E1$5 M826 $5 M$20 M$5 M
2E2$5 M725 $5 M$5 M
3E3$5 M45-1 $0$0
SUBTOTAL-$15 MOK New Score$10 M-
4O4$10 M725 2$10 M$10 M
5O5$5 M633 0$0
SUBTOTAL-$15 MLower by 3 -$0-
TOTAL-$20 MOK -$0$20 M

* The following must be considered as essential and necessary: police, fire, emergency services, the military, crime investigation, justice, corrections, safety, sanitation, legislation, executives, education, and emergency poor relief

* The following must be considered as not essential and unnecessary: the arts, sports, entertainment, recreation, museums, monuments, memorials, statues, fancy architecture, parks, trails, swimming pools, ice rinks, bicycle paths, and utility systems.


SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LEGISLATURE VOTES ON ALTERNATIVE PLANS

Use the following procedure:

  1. Enter each alternative into the vote as in an Independent Voting System election.
  2. Vote on each alternative using the Independent Voting System. Since the outcomes do not affect each other, the votes can be taken simultaneously or sequentially.
  3. Score the votes after all of the votes have been taken.
  4. The highest positive score wins.
  5. If there is no positive, score, then no change shall be made.

This procedure must always be used if there is a disagreement on what to do.


LINKS: