PLURALITY VS INDEPENDENT VOTING
Sample scenario: Three candidates are running for mayor of a city of 100000 people. Two of them, A and B, favor Proposition X. Candidate C opposes Proposition X. 60% of the population favors Proposition X and votes accordingly. The remaining 40% opposes Proposition X and votes accordingly.

## Plurality Voting - A Pie Chart

• Votes are disjoint* to each other.
• Candidate's score is his vote total.
• Candidates compete for the same votes.
• Negative campaigning works to steal votes.
• Unfairly favors the most unique candidate.
• * Disjoint is the Finite Mathematics term for events that can't happen together.

PLURALITY VOTING

PIE CHART IN FACE

## Independent Voting - A Column Chart

• Votes are independent* to each other.
• Candidate's score is his YES minus his NO.
• Candidates get their own separate votes.
• Negative campaigning does not work.
• Does not unfairly favor any candidate.
• * Independent is the Finite Mathematics term for events that don't affect each other.

INDEPENDENT VOTING

INDEPENDENT VOTING - FAIR

### The sample scenario:

• The Proposition X vote is unfairly split among candidates A & B.
• Candidate C wins.
• Proposition X is unfairly defeated.
• The will of the people is thwarted

### The sample scenario:

• The Proposition X vote is not split between candidates A and B.
• Candidate A wins.
• Proposition X is not defeated.
• The will of the people is preserved

### Properties of plurality voting:

• Vote for only one candidate in each race.
• Unfairly favors the candidate most different from the others.
• Unfairly disfavors candidates similar to other candidates.
• Lets candidates steal votes from others with negative campaigns.
• Lets the press steal votes with negative stories and campaigns.

• Voters are split among multiple candidates with similar platforms.
• Voters who don't like any of the candidates are disenfranchised.
• Voters who like more than one candidate are disenfranchised.
• The system is biased for some candidates and against others.
• The system is biased when more than two candidates run.
• Candidates joining or leaving the race can change the outcome.*
• This is why signatures or petitions are needed to get on the ballot.
• * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.

• Usually chooses the candidate most different from the others.
• Candidates running can hurt each other, so primaries are necessary.
• Recounts are required when a tie or near tie occurs.
• No runoff election is allowed.
• Overvotes (voted for too many) disqualify ballots.
• Undervotes (didn't vote for any) are not counted.
• Voters are often kept from voting their consciences.
• Voters often have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.

• Is used for unfair at-large elections.
• Can be used for fair yes-no referendum elections.
• Is used in an unfair form of electoral voting.
• Is used in an unfair form of proportional representation voting.
• The system has no way to eliminate nonlegislative offices.
• Works on any ballot type: paper, machine, computer, or mark-sense.
• Congress uses it for multiple-choice votes.

### Properties of independent voting:

• Vote for or against every candidate in each race.
• Fairly treats all candidates exactly the same. Has no bias.
• Allows voters to vote for all similar candidates.
• Candidates can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
• The press can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
• Each voter has exactly the same voting power.

• Voters are not split by multiple similar candidates.
• Voters who dislike all of the candidates aren't disenfranchised.
• Voters who like multiple candidates are not disenfranchised.
• The system has no bias for or against any candidate.
• The number of candidates running does not matter.
• Candidates joining or leaving the race can't change the outcome.*
• No signatures or petitions are necessary to get on the ballot.
• * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.

• Always chooses the choice that pleases the most voters.
• Candidates can't hurt each other, so primaries are unnecessary.
• No recounts are allowed.
• Runoffs occur if there is a tie (rare) or no positive score exists.
• There is no such thing as an overvote.
• There is no such thing as an undervote.
• Voters can always vote their consciences.
• Voters don't have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.

• Can be used for at-large elections (but at-large itself isn't fair).
• Can be used for fair referendum elections.
• Can be used in a fair form of electoral voting.
• Can be used in a fair form of proportional representation voting.
• Can have a way to eliminate nonlegislative offices built into it.
• Works on any ballot type: paper, machine, computer, or mark-sense.
• Congress uses it for its internal votes (sort of).
• Plurality Voting does not refute Arrow's Theorem.

Arrow's Theorem: "No voting system satisfies all fairness criteria."

- Many fairness criteria are wrongly based on ranking, which itself is unfair.

• Independent Voting refutes Arrow's Theorem.

Arrow's Theorem: "No voting system satisfies all fairness criteria."

- Independent Voting satisfies all reasonable fairness criteria because it doesn't use ranking.

• Plurality Voting doesn't refute the Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem.

Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem: "No voting system is immune to insincere voting."

- People vote so that their side, rather than their candidate, wins.

- People often vote to keep the worst candidate out.

• Independent Voting refutes The Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem.

Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem: "No voting system is immune to insincere voting."

- Insincere (strategic) voting is useless with Independent Voting because choices are voted on independently.