PLURALITY VS INDEPENDENT
VOTING
Sample scenario: Three candidates are running for mayor of a city of 100000 people. Two of them, A and B, favor Proposition X. Candidate C opposes Proposition X. 60% of the population favors Proposition X and votes accordingly. The remaining 40% opposes Proposition X and votes accordingly.
Plurality Pie Chart
Independent Column Chart

Plurality Voting - A Pie Chart

  • Votes are disjoint* to each other.
  • Candidate's score is his vote total.
  • Candidates compete for the same votes.
  • Negative campaigning works to steal votes.
  • Unfairly favors the most unique candidate.
  • * Disjoint is the Finite Mathematics term for events that can't happen together.

PLURALITY VOTING

PIE CHART IN FACE

Independent Voting - A Column Chart

  • Votes are independent* to each other.
  • Candidate's score is his YES minus his NO.
  • Candidates get their own separate votes.
  • Negative campaigning does not work.
  • Does not unfairly favor any candidate.
  • * Independent is the Finite Mathematics term for events that don't affect each other.

INDEPENDENT VOTING

INDEPENDENT VOTING - FAIR

The sample scenario:

  • The Proposition X vote is unfairly split among candidates A & B.
  • Candidate C wins.
  • Proposition X is unfairly defeated.
  • The will of the people is thwarted

The sample scenario:

  • The Proposition X vote is not split between candidates A and B.
  • Candidate A wins.
  • Proposition X is not defeated.
  • The will of the people is preserved

Properties of plurality voting:

  • Vote for only one candidate in each race.
  • Unfairly favors the candidate most different from the others.
  • Unfairly disfavors candidates similar to other candidates.
  • Lets candidates steal votes from others with negative campaigns.
  • Lets the press steal votes with negative stories and campaigns.
  • Some candidate votes have more power than votes for others.

  • Voters are split among multiple candidates with similar platforms.
  • Voters who don't like any of the candidates are disenfranchised.
  • Voters who like more than one candidate are disenfranchised.
  • The system is biased for some candidates and against others.
  • The system is biased when more than two candidates run.
  • Candidates joining or leaving the race can change the outcome.*
  • This is why signatures or petitions are needed to get on the ballot.
  • * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.

  • Usually chooses the candidate most different from the others.
  • Candidates running can hurt each other, so primaries are necessary.
  • Recounts are required when a tie or near tie occurs.
  • No runoff election is allowed.
  • Overvotes (voted for too many) disqualify ballots.
  • Undervotes (didn't vote for any) are not counted.
  • Voters are often kept from voting their consciences.
  • Voters often have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.

  • Is used for unfair at-large elections.
  • Can be used for fair yes-no referendum elections.
  • Is used in an unfair form of electoral voting.
  • Is used in an unfair form of proportional representation voting.
  • The system has no way to eliminate nonlegislative offices.
  • Works on of ballot: paper, machine, computer, or mark-sense.
  • Congress uses it for multiple-choice votes.

Properties of independent voting:

  • Vote for or against every candidate in each race.
  • Fairly treats all candidates exactly the same. Has no bias.
  • Allows voters to vote for all similar candidates.
  • Candidates can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
  • The press can't use negative campaigning to steal votes.
  • Each voter has exactly the same voting power.

  • Voters are not split by multiple similar candidates.
  • Voters who dislike all of the candidates aren't disenfranchised.
  • Voters who like multiple candidates are not disenfranchised.
  • The system has no bias for or against any candidate.
  • The number of candidates running does not matter.
  • Candidates joining or leaving the race can't change the outcome.*
  • No signatures or petitions are necessary to get on the ballot.
  • * Not counting the case where the entering candidate wins.

  • Always chooses the choice that pleases the most voters.
  • Candidates can't hurt each other, so primaries are unnecessary.
  • No recounts are allowed.
  • Runoffs occur if there is a tie (rare) or no positive score exists.
  • There is no such thing as an overvote.
  • There is no such thing as an undervote.
  • Voters can always vote their consciences.
  • Voters don't have to abandon favorites to stop their worst choices.

  • Can be used for at-large elections (but at-large itself isn't fair).
  • Can be used for fair referendum elections.
  • Can be used in a fair form of electoral voting.
  • Can be used in a fair form of proportional representation voting.
  • Can have a way to eliminate nonlegislative offices built into it.
  • Works on any ballot type: paper, machine, computer, or mark-sense.
  • Congress uses it for its internal votes (sort of).
  • Plurality Voting does not refutes Arrow's Theorem.

    Arrow's Theorem: No voting system satisfies all fairness criteria.

  • Independent Voting refutes Arrow's Theorem.

    Arrow's Theorem: "No voting system satisfies all fairness criteria.

    Independent Voting satisfies all reasonable fairness criteria because it doesn't use ranking.

  • Plurality Voting doesn't refute the Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem.

    The Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem: No voting system is immune to insincere voting.

  • Independent Voting refutes The Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem.

    The Gibbard-Satterthwait Theorem: No voting system is immune to insincere voting.

    Insincere (strategic) voting is useless with Independent Voting because choices are voted independently.