# WHAT IS A LIST OF RANDOM NUMBERS?

Many experimenters are confused as to what constitutes randomness. Here is a guide to the different types of random number lists, and how to produce each one.

• WHAT A LIST OF RANDOM NUMBERS IS NOT:
1. A list of random numbers does not have any preconceived order placed on it.
2. Each number in the list is not picked with regard to numbers already picked.
3. Each number in the list is not necessarily different from adjacent numbers.

• WHAT IS A LIST OF RANDOM NUMBERS?
1. The random numbers are chosen from a given range of numbers.
2. Use list of random numbers when the same number can be repeated.
3. Each number can appear as many or as few times as is possible.
4. The list does not have to include all of the numbers.
5. The list can be any length.
6. The original list is a possible outcome, if the length is right.
7. A list of one repeated number is a possible outcome.

• FINDING A LIST OF RANDOM NUMBERS: Follow these steps:
1. Pick the technique used to find a random number in the range.
2. Make sure the technique does not remember what the last random number was.
3. Repeat the technique until enough random numbers are found.

• WHAT IS A LIST OF SHUFFLED NUMBERS?
1. A shuffled list is a list of numbers that has been randomly rearranged.
2. Use a shuffled list where the order of choice matters.
3. Use a shuffled list if each number is picked exactly once.
4. Each number appears as many times as it appears in the original list.
5. The original list is a possible outcome.
6. The list includes all of the numbers in the original list.
7. The list is the same length as the original list.

• FINDING A LIST OF SHUFFLED NUMBERS: Follow these steps:
1. Determine a method to randomly select one item from a list of any length.
2. Put the numbers to be shuffled into a master list.
3. Repeat the following steps until the shuffled list is complete:
1. Randomly choose a position in the remaining master list.
2. Swap the number in that position with the last number in the master list.
3. Remove and hold the last number from the master list.
4. Put it in the same position in the shuffled list.

• WHAT IS A LIST OF PICKED NUMBERS?
1. A list of picked numbers is a portion of a list of shuffled numbers.
2. Picked numbers are used where order chosen matters.
3. Each number can be used only once.
4. Not all of the numbers are used.
5. To pick a list of n numbers, take the first n numbers from a shuffled list.

• WHAT IS A LIST OF CHOSEN NUMBERS?
1. A chosen list is a picked list that has been sorted into numerical order.
2. Use a chosen list where the order of choice does not matter.
3. Each number can be used only once.
4. To choose a list of numbers, sort a picked list into numerical order.