Interstate 69
final update:
I-69 is open from Evansville to Bloomington.
All new-terrain construction is done.
You lost!
Get over it!
Roads don't cause business failures. High taxes drive firms out of business.
Saving so many miles also saves the gasoline needed to travel those miles.
Every time a car stops, it loses kinetic energy. Eliminating stops saves energy.
If they worry about man's welfare, why do they break the law to stop I-69?
Many reasons given to stop I-69 are red herrings created by obstructionists.


Roads don't move jobs overseas. Unions price jobs out of the global market.
The decision-making period has ended. Now they are waging a fools' war.

Many of the reasons given for not building I-69 are red herrings dug up by opponents, on the theory that quantity of reasons is more important than quality of reasons.

  1. Opponents claim improving US-41 will do just as good, but:
    • Their plan doesn't shorten travel time. It increases the time.
    • Their plan doesn't shorten the distance traveled. It increases the distance.
    • Their plan doesn't reduce gasoline use (other than eliminating stops). It increases consumption.
    • No economic development happens.
    • They don't understand that the interstate highway can't follow US-41 through towns without dividing those towns. The highway would have to follow a new-terrain route around each town.
    • They don't understand the huge cost of eminent domain of adjacent property along the length of US-41. It would have taken every home, business, and shopping center along the entire length of US-41. The eminent domain would be needed for these reasons:
      • The federally required width of the right-of-way for an interstate highway is much wider than the existing US-41. Property must be acquired on one or both sides of the existing right-of-way.
      • Any property that would be landlocked when US-41 is changed from open access to controlled access must be either given alternate access or be taken through eminent domain.
      • Property must be taken to provide an access road to provide access to properties.
      Also note that most of the buildings along US-41 are within the width needed for the expanded right-of-way.

      A new-terrain route takes far less developed land, so the property taken for the project would cost a lot less.

  2. Opponents say too much farmland and wetlands are used up, but:
    • A very tiny fraction of available land is used.
    • They lamented the 3000 acres to be used to build the highway. Then, a farmer said it would reduce the utility of his 3500-acre farm. One farm is larger than the total area used for the highway!
    • Farmers can't make money because too much farmland is producing crops.
    • All other routes, including US-41, use up more wetland.
  3. Opponents claim the road will cause more fuel to be used, but:
    • The more direct route saves gasoline, compared to current routes.
    • People don't drive just to use roads. Trips are made for specific purposes.
    • Most trips on the new road would be made anyway, on longer roads using more fuel.
    • Traffic lights, stop signs, sharp curves, city driving, and passing slow cars on two-lane roads waste the most fuel.
    • A four-lane divided highway without stop signs and traffic lights will save fuel.
  4. Opponents say the road will cause too much pollution, but:
    • Saving gasoline reduces pollution.
    • Most auto pollution happens during idle or acceleration.
    • Most auto pollution concentrates at busy signalized intersections.
    • Interstate highways don't have intersections or traffic signals.
  5. They say the Environmental Impact Statement doesn't show the whole impact, but:
    • New construction has different impacts than upgrades.
    • New construction is not mixed with upgrades. Different forms are used for each.
    • Segmented design and environmental impact is normal practice on large projects.
    • Conversion to interstate highway design reduces air pollution.
  6. Opponents say existing roads are adequate, but:
    • 20 or 30 mi/hr curves are not "adequate."
    • 25 or 30 mi/hr speed limits through towns every few miles are not "adequate."
    • 2-lane undivided roads are not "adequate."
    • Crawling behind farm tractors for miles is definitely not "adequate."
    • Existing routes are far from direct routes:
      1. Switz City and Bloomfield are too far west.
      2. Bedford is too far south.
      3. The road through Odon zigzags back and forth.
      4. No diagonal routes in southern Indiana, other than Indiana 67, go from northeast to southwest.
  7. Opponents say higher speeds are deadly, but:
    • Speed is deadly only on undivided roads, and on roads with bad shoulders.
    • A recent study showed that raising the Interstate highway speed limit from 55 to 70 caused no extra casualties.
    • Following too close is the most dangerous factor on all highways.
    • Speed difference on the same road is more dangerous than high speeds.
    • Dividing the highway will prevent deaths.
    • Bad drivers have accidents anywhere, but better roads attract them.
  8. Opponents say the economic benefits do not justify the project, but:
    • Personal time saved by shorter trip is not included.
    • They don't count removing truck traffic from local roads as a benefit (but they do count it at meetings about truck routes).
    • Fuel savings for trips other than Indianapolis--Evansville were not counted.
  9. Opponents say foreign trade causes job loss, but:
    • They see mainly union labor jobs lost, because the unions make a nationwide stink.
    • They don't see jobs gained in new industries foreign trade creates. These appear very quietly. Nobody complains about new jobs, so they make only the local papers.
    • They don't see any gain in the lower prices caused by free trade.
    • They don't notice new goods that were not there before.
    • Most "lost" jobs aren't lost, they just transplant. If workers move with jobs, they still have them. Wage rates may be lower elsewhere, but so are tax rates. It's not the salary's amount, but what it buys that counts.
    • If unions and taxes didn't drive them up, wages would be the same everywhere.
    • Roads do not cause the loss of jobs. Unions price themselves out of the market when they lose their monopoly status (which they never should have had).
    • Multiple governments tax us out of jobs with a 75 percent total tax rate. And they keep wanting more.
  10. Opponents say the limestone industry will be hurt, but:
    • There is plenty of time to quarry the stone if they start now.
    • Quarry land must be restored by law. It can be done to fit the road at state expense.
    • The construction will require a lot of stone. That's business for the limestone industry.
  11. Opponents are against growth, but:
    • Growth is necessary to provide jobs for residents already here.
    • As the population grows, so must the job base.
    • People opposed to growth are also those most likely to have many children.
    • Those against growth should stop treating sex as a right, and as a recreational pursuit.
  12. Many of the reasons given by opponents are religious in nature.
    • Many environmentalist claims are religious, instead of scientific.
    • Claims of loss of "spiritual harmony" or of "desecrating the earth" are from the old earth-worship religions.
    • Science has not shown that global warming is caused by man. Global warming has also been observed on other planets. So reducing carbon dioxide emissions to stop global warming is a religious belief not supported by science.
  13. Many of the reasons given by opponents are specious in nature.
    • Opponents want the money spent on things that fuel taxes can't ever be spent on. Examples are schools, sports, and the arts.
    • They are still calling for more public hearings on whether to build the project after the decision to build has been made and the contracts have been let.
    • They are still calling for a change in the route of I-69 after a portion of the new route has been completed and opened to traffic.
    • They disrupt meetings with demands that are not germane to the discussions being held.
    • They filed frivolous lawsuits intended to delay the project.
    • They keep their political signs up in violation of the election laws.
    • Some of them deface or damage property to call attention to their hopeless cause.
  14. One group falsely purports itself to be a huge multitude against new highways.
    • They bring almost all of their members to each public hearing, but represent them as being residents local to the project.
    • They cheat when polling methods are used to determine the percentage of attendees favoring and opposing the project:
      • They stomp their feet in addition to clapping when applause meters are used.
      • They raise both hands when a show of hands is asked for.
      • They stuff the ballot and comment boxes.
      • One time they stole the box of comments left by other people and replaced it with a box they filled with their comments.
    • They also give the "spiritual harmony" and "desecrating the earth" arguments the earth-worshipers give.
    • Their leader "just happened" to have owned property on the planned route of I-69 southwest of Bloomington.
  15. Opponents have disrupted meetings and continue to try to stop the project even when most if it is done.
    • They brought up issues that were not germane for the meeting they were at.
    • They tried to bring up the no-build option after the decision on what to build was already made.
    • They parked a truck across the entrance to the parking lot where the meeting was scheduled.
    • They pulled the fire alarm to try to end the meeting.
    • A protester stole the special cable for the computer-display projector for the presentations. At a different meeting, they stole the remote control for the school's ceiling-mounted projector.
    • They filed lawsuits to try to stop the project. Often they filed them in courts that had absolutely no jurisdiction (e.g. county courts) because the judges of those courts favored their position.
    • They got rowdy at a few meetings, and threw chairs at one meeting.
    • They filed frivolous lawsuits intended to use up the funding for the project with legal bills (but the legal costs came from an entirely different state budget).
  16. Opponents have picketed construction companies and destroyed property to try to stop the construction.
    • They filed frivolous lawsuits against the companies who won the bids. Judges threw out the lawsuits.
    • Opponents blocked the entrances to construction companies so the workers could not get in to go to work. A few times they dumped garbage or stolen construction signs in the driveways.
    • They drove spikes into trees to be cut down so the lumber could not be sold and chainsaws would be damaged.
    • They damaged construction equipment: One time they filled the cabs of the equipment with concrete. Another time they hot-wired a bulldozer and smashed it into several other pieces of equipment. Several times they contaminated the engine oil in the equipment.
    • They stole or moved traffic barriers so traffic would drive into the construction area instead of following the safe routes.
    • They spray-painted graffiti on the Statehouse.
    • Some of them deface or damage property to call attention to their hopeless cause.

Opponents don't know the whole plan. Here it is:


The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) says it can't be done. But here is a way to provide interchange access to all six (or nine) major thorofares that cross Interstate 69. The thorofares are:

The Walnut Street, the Indiana 45/46, the Indiana 48, and the Indiana 45 interchanges already exist. But the last two might be modified. That leaves four (or seven) access points that can be modified:

INDOT says that Vernal Pike can't have any interchange because it is too close to the Indiana 46 interchange. But INDOT will provide a method using extra lanes for having interchanges at both Second Street and Tapp Road. Rebound interchanges allow full access to all of these roads.

What is a Rebound Interchange?

Rebound interchange Here is an example of a rebound interchange near Dallas TX. In this photo (upper right), the eastern (right) crossroad has a full diamond interchange. The western (left) crossroad is connected by the rebound interchange ramps to the ramps of the diamond interchange, as shown. The crossroad on the west actually has full access to the freeway:

So the western crossroad actually has full access to the eastern crossroad and to the freeway, not just the half access that it appears to the eye to have.

WHC Rebound A half-rebound interchange existed at Whitehall Crossing Boulevard (lower right) before I-69 construction began. The rebound ramps are next to the red dot.

This was removed as part of the I-69 construction. The rebound ramps were too close to the Third Street ramps to meet Interstate highway standards. Also, the curves on the ramps were too tight to meet the standards. All access is now through Gates Drive.

In the diagrams below, north is at the top. Each road has a caption next to it.

The left diagram was the original SPUI proposal, the middle diagram is a DDI proposal, and the right diagram is the actual plan.

In the left diagram, Vernal Pike is connected to 17th street on the east end, to allow placement of the overpass. This INDOT proposal conflicts with the traffic calming Bloomington put on 17th Street.

In the left diagram, the CD roads exit and enter I-69 just south of Vernal Pike, and just north of Fullerton Pike. I-69 has one exit ramp and one entrance ramp in each direction to handle all traffic to and from all five roads. In addition, the CD roads can also transfer traffic between the crossroads.

In the left diagram, the interchanges at Indiana 48, Indiana 45, and Tapp Road are all of the Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) type. This kind of interchange has one signalized intersection in the middle of the bridge that handles all left turns. The SPUI is more efficient than any of the interchanges now used in that area. An example of a SPUI can be found at Indiana 46 and Interstate 65 in Columbus Indiana.

In the middle and right diagrams, the interchanges at Indiana 48 and Indiana 45 are the existing interchanges, slightly modified.

In the left diagram, the interchanges at Vernal Pike and at Fullerton Pike are rebound interchanges. They provide full access to these cross streets through ramps away from the cross streets.

In the middle diagram, the interchange at Vernal Pike is a rebound interchange DDI. It provides full access through ramps away from Vernal, and also provides access for Whitehall Crossing Boulevard. The interchange at Tapp Road is a DDI, and the interchange at Rockport Road is a rebound DDI. And the interchange at Fullerton Pike is a 3-quadrant parclo.

The Indiana 46 and Indiana 45 interchange is just out of sight above the top edge of the picture. It is too close for any connections at Vernal Pike that handle traffic to and from the north

The Original SPUI Plan

The DDI Plan

The Actual Plan

Vernal Pike has a rebound interchange with full access in the left two photos. On the right, access is via a possibly extended Gates Drive.

Bloomington I-69 proposal

Uses expensive single point urban interchanges

Bloomington I-69 proposal

Uses cheaper diverging diamond interchanges

Bloomington I-69 proposal

What INDOT is building (with additions)

Whitehall Crossing Blvd (middle) had an existing half rebound interchange with 3/4 access. Note collector-distributor (CD) roads in first two photos. In the actual plan, this is closed.
The left Indiana 48 interchange is a SPUI with U-turn. The other two use the existing diamond.
Note the railroad overpass south of IN-48. The left photo has CD roads here and needs a new bridge. The other two add extra lanes between ramps.
Indiana 45 has a SPUI on the left. The middle and right plans use the current interchange. A split diamond was originally planned for Indiana 45 and Tapp Road.
The left photo shows CD roads, and the middle and right have extra lanes.
The left Tapp Road interchange is a SPUI, the middle one is a DDI, and the right one is a roundabout diamond (originally a split diamond).
Note the CD roads in the left photo. The middle and right photos might have extra lanes between the ramps.
The left Fullerton Pike interchange is a rebound interchange. The middle has a 3-quadrant parclo, and the right has a roundabout 2-quadrant parclo.
There is no Rockport Road interchange in the left or right photos. An overpass exists in each case. The middle Rockport Road interchange is a rebound DDI. But Rockport is close enough to Fullerton.
Right click on any picture and choose View Image to see it full size. The I-69 and Indiana 37 interchange will be built just out of sight below the bottom edge of the picture. It will be too close for any direct connections at Rockport Road or That Road that handle traffic to and from the south.

Thus, all of these streets have full access to I-69.

Note that the connection to the east end of Vernal Pike in the left diagram can be two-way from Vernal Pike to 17th Street. This allows traffic to flow on Vernal Pike as it does now. And if it becomes an issue, the connection to 17th street is not necessary, even though the bridge is placed there.

The last interchange on the south can be either Rockport Road or Fullerton Pike. Both designs will work either way.

What's a SPUI


What's a CD Road?

CD Road

What's a DDI


What's a Split Diamond


A Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) has the basic function of the diamond interchange, but all of the left turns come together at a special intersection, usually under the bridge or on it. Left turns from opposite directions move simultaneously without crossing paths. The traffic signal cycle for the SPUI is simpler and more efficient than one for a diamond.

A rebound compatible SPUI has turnbacks for rebound interchanges and CD roads.

Collector-Distributor (CD) roads are one-way roads paralleling the freeway. As seen in this photo, the ramps of a full cloverleaf can be connected to them, with less weaving trouble with close exits and entrances.

CD roads are connected to the freeway away from the interchange, protecting high-speed lanes from the weaving maneuvers of entering and exiting traffic. This allows more access points to be provided in a given area.

A Diverging Diamond Interchange (DDI) has the main roadways of the cross street braided. They cross each other at the two signalized intersections. Traffic on the cross-street bridge drives to the left of the center divider. The bridge is smaller and much cheaper than the one on the SPUI. All signals are two-phase.

A rebound DDI is a half DDI functioning as a rebound interchange. A rebound compatible DDI has CD roads.

A Split Diamond Interchange is built when two cross streets need access to the freeway, but they are too close together to have their own interchanges, even with CD roads.

The split diamond ramps service both streets. A driver using a split diamond ramp may have to pass through an intersection on one cross street to go to or from the other cross street.

A split diamond is fully rebound compatible.

between local Bloomington Indiana roads formerly
connected to Indiana 37 and the new Interstate 69


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